Sys Manage Copyright2 [CRACKED] Crack Cocainel
Mortality is a significant outcome among Brazilian crack/cocaine-dependent patients yet not well understood and is under investigated. This study examined a range of mortality indicators within a cohort of 131 crack/cocaine-dependent patients admitted into treatment and meeting criteria for dependence of crack (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). After 12 years of treatment discharge, 107 individuals were reassessed and 27 death cases were confirmed by official records, wherein in its majority were caused by homicide (n = 16). In this group, survival rate was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74-0.81) and previous history of IV cocaine use was identified as a predictor of mortality (2.5, 95% CI = 1.08-5.79). High mortality rates among Brazilian crack/cocaine-dependent patients, exposure to violence, and HIV/AIDS were topics discussed in this study. This research highlights the importance of ongoing programs to manage crack/cocaine use along with other treatment features within this population.
Sys Manage Copyright2 Crack Cocainel
There are an estimated several million crack-cocaine users globally; use is highest in the Americas. Most crack users are socio-economically marginalized (e.g., homeless), and feature elevated risks for morbidity (e.g., blood-borne viruses), mortality and crime/violence involvement, resulting in extensive burdens. No comprehensive reviews of evidence-based prevention and/or treatment interventions specifically for crack use exist. We conducted a comprehensive narrative overview of English-language studies on the efficacy of secondary prevention and treatment interventions for crack (cocaine) abuse/dependence. Literature searches (1990-2014) using pertinent keywords were conducted in main scientific databases. Titles/abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and full studies were included in the review if involving a primary prevention/treatment intervention study comprising a substantive crack user sample. Intervention outcomes considered included drug use, health risks/status (e.g., HIV or sexual risks) and select social outcome indicators. Targeted (e.g., behavioral/community-based) prevention measures show mixed and short-term effects on crack use/HIV risk outcomes. Material (e.g., safer crack use kit distribution) interventions also document modest efficacy in risk reduction; empirical assessments of environmental (e.g., drug consumption facilities) for crack smokers are not available. Diverse psycho-social treatment (including contingency management) interventions for crack abuse/dependence show some positive but also limited/short-term efficacy, yet likely constitute best currently available treatment options. Ancillary treatments show little effects but are understudied. Despite ample studies, pharmaco-therapeutic/immunotherapy treatment agents have not produced convincing evidence; select agents may hold potential combined with personalized approaches and/or psycho-social strategies. No comprehensively effective 'gold-standard' prevention/treatment interventions for crack abuse exist; concerted research towards improved interventions is urgently needed.
Finally, at a macro political level, crack-cocaine-sentencing policy was at the center of political infighting between Congress and the judiciary. In the 1980s, members of Congress opposed leniency in sentencing by mandating that a commission create sentencing guidelines that would bind judges. In order to write rational and proportionate guidelines, the commission was forced to incorporate the 1986 mandatory minimums as a sentencing floor, thus skewing sentences for all crimes upwards. The "ratchet up" effect was amplified as Congress passed a flurry of directives in order to micro-manage the guidelines amendment process, and increase its own power relative to the judiciary. When the commission voted to reduce the sentencing guideline for crack cocaine in the mid-1990s, Congress rejected the amendment. Tough-on-crime rhetoric and power politics proved more important to Congress than reality.