History Of Subcontinent From 712 To 1857 Pdf Downloadl !FREE!
The history of preceding the country's independence in 1947 is shared with that of Afghanistan, India, and Iran. Spanning the western expanse of the Indian subcontinent and the eastern borderlands of the Iranian plateau, the region of present-day Pakistan served both as the fertile ground of a major civilization and as the gateway of South Asia to Central Asia and the Near East.
History Of Subcontinent From 712 To 1857 Pdf Downloadl
The Kushan Empire expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor, Kujula Kadphises, about the middle of the 1st century CE. They were descended from an Indo-European, Central Asian people called the Yuezhi, a branch of which was known as the Kushans. By the time of his grandson, Kanishka the Great, the empire spread to encompass much of Afghanistan and the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares).
Here is a Book on the Ancient History of Indian Subcontinent in Pdf. It is a comprehensive book on the history of India, which contains information from the history of ancient India to the creation of Pakistan. And apart from that there is a lot of information about Pakistan. History of subcontinent from 712 to 1947, History of subcontinent 1857 to 1947, Complete history of subcontinent pdf.
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When Pakistan became a country on August 14th, 1947, to form the largest Muslim state in the world at that time. The creation of Pakistan was catalyst to the largest demographic movement in recorded history. Nearly seventeen million people-Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs-are reported to have moved in both directions between India and the two wings of Pakistan (the eastern wing is now Bangladesh). Sixty million of the ninety-five million Muslims on the Indian subcontinent became citizens of Pakistan at the time of its creation. Subsequently, thirty-five million Muslims remained inside India making it the largest Muslim minority in a non-Muslim state.
After Ayub Khan, General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan headed the second military regime from 1969-1971. By that time the country had been under military rule for thirteen of its twenty-five years of existence. This second military regime emphasized the extent to which the process of centralization under bureaucratic and military tutelage had fragmented Pakistani society and politics. The general elections of 1970 on the basis of adult franchise revealed for the first time ever in Pakistan's history how regionalism and social conflict had come to dominate politics despite the efforts at controlled development. The Awami League, led by Mujibur Rahman, campaigned on a six-point program of provincial autonomy, capturing all but one seat in East Pakistan and securing an absolute majority in the national assembly. In West Pakistan the Pakistan People's Party, led by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, had a populist platform that stole the thunder from the Islamic parties (the Muslim League, the oldest political party captured no more than a few seats) and emerged as the largest single bloc. The prospect of an Awami Leagues government was a threat to politicians in West Pakistan who in conspiracy with the military leadership prevented Mujibur from taking the reins of power. This was the final straw for the east wing who was already fed up with the their under-representation in all sectors of the government, economic deprivation and then the suppression of the democratic process. An armed rebellion in East Pakistan engendered all of these frustrations, which caused Indian military intervention to crush it. Pakistan was now involved in its third war with India, thus clearing the way for the establishment of Bangladesh in 1971.
Secularism, as conceived in our subcontinent, is a matter of having different religious communities living together in tranquillity and harmony, whereas in Pakistan, especially west Pakistan, from where many minorities choose to move out to India, secularism takes on a different role of being a matter of tranquillity and harmony between different sects of Islam. And yet getting to that point is very hard when the sects are defined in different theological terms and each theology feels that its word is the true interpretation of the word of God.
LPKSTR is absent from R1a1 clades other than Z93 clades, which are abundant in the corridor from Transcaucasia to South Asia on both sides of the Persian Gulf (Supplementary File S9). LPKSTR is almost entirely absent from Indian and Arab L657 individuals in the public databases. LPKSTR is found in eastern Transcaucasia and western Afghanistan. Table S7 shows incidence of the LPKSTR type within R1a1 Y-HG individuals for ten communities used in the TMRCA branch-point analysis (Figure 2). In addition, eastern Transcaucasians (Avars, Dargins, and Lezghins) show a high incidence of LPKSTR, unlike Nakh and Western Transcaucasian R1a1 cohorts suggesting provenance to the eastern side of Transcaucasia (Supplementary File S8). Regional communities within Iran are not well represented in this analysis, as their STR profiles are not publicly available. With that caveat, LPKSTR abundance appears to track the distribution of Pool A (Figure 2). Interestingly, the average incidence of LPKSTR among R1a1-HG individuals of the Khatri and Zabuli cohorts closest to the Bolan Pass (36.1%) is four times that of the Pashtun and Gandhara communities (9.1%) that live closer to the Khyber Pass, consistent with a history of LPKSTR migration along the so-called northern Persian trail into the subcontinent.
In the mid-eighth century CE, the heartland of Brahmin orthodoxy was located in the northeast of the subcontinent . Qualitative evidence in support of the thesis that LPK families migrated to Salcete from a western, rather than eastern, proximal origin includes the following.
(c) Reluctance to Convert to Christianity in the Sixteenth Century. Figure 8(b) (middle panel) shows data from the history of early conversion to Christianity. Although both Lotli and Kudtari towns were located roughly equidistant from the Jesuit mission at Rachol, during its first three decades (between 1560 and 1586) virtually all Brahmin converts to Christianity originated from LPK families, with none from Kudtari families (). The greater reluctance to convert on the part of GSB families of Kudtari may be read as stronger (pre-Christian) religious orthodoxy.
Supplementary File S26 suggests that at least three different (large) pools of the R1a1 Y-HG entered the subcontinent separately over a span of at least four millennia. The ancestors of orthodox Brahmins may have entered the subcontinent in the Iron Age, while LPK individuals may entered with the most recent of those introgressions (first millennium CE). We supported a putative migration history for these lineages within archeological horizons backed by radiocarbon dating (Kura-Araxes, Quetta Ware, Harappan, OCP-CH, and WP-BRW). We further constructed a possible cultural context for LPK migration based on toponymic, iconographic, numismatic, epigraphic, architectural, and ancient literary data.
Balochistan has an eventful history dating back to the Stone Age. Recent research and archaeological excavations at Mehrgarh have revealed 9000 years old civilization. Human settlement pattern at Mehrgarh was unparalleled and unique, inaugurating the distinct shift from a hunting gathering to a settled life for the first time in human history. Domestication of animals, cultivation of plants, and perfume export were modern features of Mehrgarh civilization. Alexander the great passed through Balochistan in 325 B. C. After his death Balochistan came under the rule of Selecus Nicator whose descendents lost power to the Graeco-Bactrians. The province has also witnessed the march of a number of great conquerors and warriors such as Macedonians, Arabs, Ghaznavies, Mangols and Mughals in the past.
The Indian subcontinent, or simply the subcontinent, is a physiographical region in South Asia. It is situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Geopolitically, the Indian subcontinent generally includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, as well as the Maldives. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the landmass that rifted from the supercontinent Gondwana during the Cretaceous and merged with the Eurasian landmass nearly 55 million years ago.
The discipline of History was launched by bifurcation of already existing Department of Pakistan Studies and Political Science that was in 2011 renamed as the Department of History and Pakistan Studies.This department was further bifurcated in two independant departments i.e. History and Pakistan studies.As history focuses the actions and deeds of the human beings, therefore, it studies the past societies, cultures and events caused by human beings in particular time and space. The Department of History specifically deals with those societies, cultures and events with reference to the temporal and special dimensions. Besides the core subjects of History, Historiography/Philosophy of History and Research Methodology, the department imparts learning and understanding in a wide range of subjects and topics, such as social, cultural, geographical, political, economic and religious contours. The Department of History exclusively offers the courses of history, therefore, it also envisions in the near future to offer the neglected courses of the history of designing, history of art and history of architecture and History of Archives. The department believes to teach the courses in a way to enable the students to draw lessons from the past experiences of human beings and to help the contemporary society in correcting its course of action.The goal and objective of the faculty of the Department of History is to create a conducive environment for the students to polish their skills and become experts in carrying out quality research in the discipline of History. The horizon and spectrum of the discipline of history is very broad and it encompasses various periods, epochs and events. It covers the histories of geographies, topographies, areas, regions, continents, wars, religions, governments, elections, constitutional developments, economies, movements, personalities, concepts, languages, literature, cultures, civilizations, writings, medicines, food, arts and paintings. Being multi-disciplinary in nature, history is connected with all other social sciences as they deal with the actions and deeds of human beings within the society and has come out from the lap of history itself. History shares concepts and ideas with these various disciplines and in return borrows from them. Keeping in view, the faculty of the Department of History intends to teach the subject from that broader perspective. Besides, the Department aims at, the promotion of factual and interpretive history, curiosity to find the truth, generalization, objectivity, unbiased and unprejudiced approach, and curiosity to find the truth. For the pursuit of enhancing conceptual and intellectual capabilities of and activities of the students, the Department has a functional Society and Study Circle. That is why the Department is growing and flourishing day by day in size and performance.